Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC

May 4, 2015 | Updated: September 18, 2020
Author: Morgan Westcott, LinkBC, Geoffrey Bird, Royal Roads University, Peter Briscoe, Ray Freeman, Royal Roads University, Kelly Glazer, Keith Henry, Terry Hood, Heather Knowles, Micki McCartney, Vancouver Island University, Donna Owens, George Brown College, Lynda Robinson, Vancouver Island University, Eugene Thomlinson, Royal Roads University, Griff Tripp, Don Webster, Capilano University, Rebecca Wilson-Mah, Royal Roads University

Good news! This book has been updated and revised. An adaptation of this book can be found here: open.bccampus.ca

THIS BOOK WILL BE ARCHIVED ON FEBRUARY 1, 2021, AS IT HAS BEEN REPLACED BY A NEW EDITION. This textbook is an introduction to the tourism and hospitality industry in British Columbia, and is written with a first year college and university audience in mind. It is a collaborative work with input from educators, industry leaders, employers, and past graduates of BC’s tourism and hospitality management programs. All chapters have been reviewed by experts in the field. Each chapter is organized thematically moving from a global, then national, and finally provincial context. Chapters contain "Spotlight On" boxes that highlight an organization, business, or other key component and "Take a Closer Look" features that encourage further reading on particular subjects. Key terms, exercises and case studies can be found at the end of each chapter.

Subject Areas
Hospitality/Tourism, Hospitality/Tourism - General

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This montage includes: Vancouver Island University (https://www.flickr.com/photos/83374808@N05/14169303681/); BC Ferries from Nanaimo (https://www.flickr.com/photos/83374808@N05/13986039017/); Capilano Universitys Team (https://www.flickr.com/photos/83374808@N05/10594703525/), all by LinkBC (https://www.flickr.com/photos/83374808@N05/) and all used under a CC-BY 2.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/).

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Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC by Morgan Westcott, LinkBC, Geoffrey Bird, Royal Roads University, Peter Briscoe, Ray Freeman, Royal Roads University, Kelly Glazer, Keith Henry, Terry Hood, Heather Knowles, Micki McCartney, Vancouver Island University, Donna Owens, George Brown College, Lynda Robinson, Vancouver Island University, Eugene Thomlinson, Royal Roads University, Griff Tripp, Don Webster, Capilano University, Rebecca Wilson-Mah, Royal Roads University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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Reviews (5) Avg: 4.5 / 5

Audrey Lowrie

Institution:Selkirk CollegeTitle/Position: Instructor (Part Time)Creative Commons License

Q: The text covers all areas and ideas of the subject appropriately and provides an effective index and/or glossary

The textbook provides a comprehensive coverage of tourism and hospitality in BC and is ideal for a first year class. The content sets the industry in BC within a global, national and provincial context.
Overall, the textbook is excellent with a clear presentation of topics in a logical manner with good flow.
The index is clear.
The examples and illustrations are frequent, and the key terms at the end of each chapter are helpful.
There is a good summary of what is to be achieved at the beginning of each chapter, and another glossary of key terms at the end of the textbook.
There are no solutions to end of chapter exercises for the student in the textbook itself.

Comprehensiveness Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased

The content is accurate and well presented. There are no obvious errors and text is unbiased.

Content Accuracy Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Content is up-to-date, but not in a way that will quickly make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement

There are many up to date illustrations and examples, and the overall tone of the textbook feels very current. Some of the statistics are from 2014. Good coverage on topics such as global trends, which is also up to date.
There will be some maintenance necessary to keep the figures current.

Relevance Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is written in lucid, accessible prose, and provides adequate context for any jargon/technical terminology used

This text is written in an easy and enjoyable read manner is ideal as an introduction to the subject. The language is clear, there are regular review tables to revisit terms and concepts, and the glossary at the end of each chapter is a quick useful reference.
There is also an alphabetical glossary at the end covering all chapters. In addition, there are links to the appropriate chapter when a subject is revisited.
There is a good use of local examples such as well-known tourist sites or hotels to illustrate the concepts. There is also good use of photographs in each chapter.

Clarity Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework

There is good consistency throughout.
There did not appear to be any new concepts introduced later in the text that had not been explained earlier.
Terminology is consistent throughout.

Consistency Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course (i.e., enormous blocks of text without subheadings should be avoided). The text should not be overly self-referential, and should be easily reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader.

Chapters can be read on a stand-alone basis. Selected chapters could also be put together to provide a custom approach to the subject.
The textbook has excellent flow, and it is obviously designed to be read from beginning to end. Each chapter, however, stands on its own and faculty could change the content order of each chapter.


Modularity Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion

The overall flow of the chapters is logical, although chapters could easily be read out of order if preferred.
Within each chapter, the sections and subsections are clear and consistent and tend to flow well.

Organization Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is free of significant interface issues, including navigation problems, distortion of images/charts, and any other display features that may distract or confuse the reader

The text is easy to read in terms of navigation.
Charts and tables are clear and easy to follow. The use of colours and highlighting is helpful.
The “spotlight” text boxes allow the reader to link to a relevant website for further information – worked well.

Interface Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text contains no grammatical errors

There were no obvious grammatical or spelling errors.

Grammar Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. It should make use of examples that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds

This textbook is designed for students of tourism and hospitality in BC and it works well. Obviously there is limited scope for its adoption outside of the province.
Chapter 12, on Aboriginal Tourism is particularly helpful.
The text is not al all culturally insensitive.
The final chapter on globalization and trends gives a broad brush view of global issues.


Cultural Relevance Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Are there any other comments you would like to make about this book, for example, its appropriateness in a Canadian context or specific updates you think need to be made?

This textbook is ideal as an introduction to BC tourism and hospitality. It is up to date, covers all the main issues and is presented in as easy to follow format.

Beverly Komukai

Institution:PCTIA accredited career training institutionTitle/Position: InstructorCreative Commons License

Q: The text covers all areas and ideas of the subject appropriately and provides an effective index and/or glossary

This text covers each topic quite well. My class and I have really enjoyed the Canadian and BC focus in each chapter.
It is also very up-to-date and includes excellent Internet links and activities.
The chapter glossaries are also very helpful.
The photographs are beautiful, but perhaps other graphics could be used such as pie charts, flow charts, and timelines to help with comprehension of concepts.

Comprehensiveness Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased

The material is nicely balanced and covers various topics and issues in tourism today.

As is to be expected, a few websites have changed slightly, or the links don't quite go to intended page.

I have found some PowerPoint errors in Chapter 4.
Slide 14 has the box at the top "Click to add title"; Slide 17 has a heading but no notes.

p.138 in the Spotlight On BCLC - "informatioon, visit http:"

p.143 in Glossary - "rown corporation" for definition of BCLC

Chapter 6 PowerPoint slide 6 - "The broad nature of festivals has lead to the..."


Content Accuracy Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Content is up-to-date, but not in a way that will quickly make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement

I think the text is very good in this aspect.
A lot of data and information, weblinks, and topics are very current.
Even with something as new as Uber, there is mention of it and some comment on its potential (both positive and negative).

Relevance Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is written in lucid, accessible prose, and provides adequate context for any jargon/technical terminology used

This text has been perfect for my students. The language is clear and simple, yet the topics are often deep and serious.
The content has not been dumbed down.

Agency acronyms (and there are so many!) are clearly explained rather than assuming readers know them.
With other textbooks, even I have had to look up these types of abbreviations because they aren't explained!

The key terms for each chapter have been really helpful too.

Clarity Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework

I have seen no problems with consistency.
Each chapter is set up with the objectives to start, topics in logical sequence, and then the glossary and questions.

Information given progresses naturally from the basic overview to more in-depth details.

Consistency Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course (i.e., enormous blocks of text without subheadings should be avoided). The text should not be overly self-referential, and should be easily reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader.

Different topics within each chapter are clearly divided.

I appreciate the headings for ease of reference and information-gathering.

However, on some pages there are 3 or 4 boxes for Spotlight On, or other website links.
This makes the page a little chopped up and the reading s can lose their flow.

The links and topics are great and I've used so many of them. I know that if they were all at the bottom of the page they might get 'lost'.
Perhaps limit them to a maximum of 2 per page, or arrange text boxes at the side of the page.

Modularity Rating: 3 out of 5

Q: The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion

The chapter topics are in a logical order. One topic flows to the next naturally.

I do think that Event Planning could be a separate section/chapter, rather than within the Attractions chapter.
Event Planning is a big sector of Tourism/Hospitality and it could be developed further into its own chapter.

Organization Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is free of significant interface issues, including navigation problems, distortion of images/charts, and any other display features that may distract or confuse the reader

I have mentioned some issues in the Accuracy section of this survey.

I am surprised that the PowerPoint slides are not 'locked'. I could click on titles, images, and text and move things around as well as potentially change things.

Interface Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text contains no grammatical errors

I have mentioned some errors in the Accuracy section of this survey.

Otherwise, I didn't notice any grammatical errors.

Grammar Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. It should make use of examples that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds

The text is excellent in this area. Many points of history are discussed. Many groups and peoples are mentioned.

Perhaps a section on Vancouver's Pride Week Parade could be added.

Cultural Relevance Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Are there any other comments you would like to make about this book, for example, its appropriateness in a Canadian context or specific updates you think need to be made?

I've really enjoyed my first run through with this text. It was my first experience with an open text, and it was a great, easy-to-use resource.

My students and I really liked the Canadian and BC content. It is so hard to find.
It's tiring always reading/teaching about Disneyworld, the Grand Canyon, and Hawaii!
As we learned about the concepts and ideas of tourism, they were connected to places and activities right in our area. It made the concepts that much more tangible. I also think it opened my students eyes up to a lot of places they may not have thought about before.

As I mentioned before, the website links are also really excellent. They are not just listed as references, but are highlighted and described briefly as a further resource and example of the ideas and concepts studied. I used many in class, as group work, and as homework so students could apply what was learned to real companies and cases.

Thank you!

Blake Rowsell

Institution:Capilano UniversityTitle/Position: InstructorCreative Commons License

Q: The text covers all areas and ideas of the subject appropriately and provides an effective index and/or glossary

The text covers all areas and ideas of the subject. However, not appropriately. It is far to basic of an overview for university students. A more in-depth analysis is required.

Comprehensiveness Rating: 2 out of 5

Q: Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased

Yes it is accurate, error free and unbiased. However, the examples are starting to become out of date. An updated version is required.

Content Accuracy Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Content is up-to-date, but not in a way that will quickly make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement

Updates would be relatively easy, However, the book is almost out of date. I would use the text for one more year, but would not use in 2019 without updates.

Relevance Rating: 3 out of 5

Q: The text is written in lucid, accessible prose, and provides adequate context for any jargon/technical terminology used

In my option the text is too simplified. Students should be exposed to a high level of writing and a more in-depth analysis and terms should be used.

Clarity Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework

Yes. No issues here

Consistency Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course (i.e., enormous blocks of text without subheadings should be avoided). The text should not be overly self-referential, and should be easily reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader.

Yes, but each section is to short, limited or summary. In many cases there are only one or two sentences provided in each section. Again, more content is required to bolster or support what is there.

Modularity Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion

Very much so

Organization Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is free of significant interface issues, including navigation problems, distortion of images/charts, and any other display features that may distract or confuse the reader

Yes

Interface Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text contains no grammatical errors

No major

Grammar Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. It should make use of examples that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds

Nothing insensitive or offensive, However, limited content that discusses inclusion. As an example, there should be a section on Truth and Reconciliation.

Cultural Relevance Rating: 2 out of 5

Q: Are there any other comments you would like to make about this book, for example, its appropriateness in a Canadian context or specific updates you think need to be made?

I have yes, but not as a stand alone text. In it's current format it is only appropriate to add BC context. I would like to use it as a stand along text. However, it does not provide enough detail for that purpose at this point.

Ace Espiritu

Institution:Dorset CollegeTitle/Position: Hospitality InstructorCreative Commons License

Q: The text covers all areas and ideas of the subject appropriately and provides an effective index and/or glossary

The book is so AMAZING, I used this as one of my references in the course: Introduction to Hospitality and tourism I teach.

What I love about this book is it emphasizes about the Tourism and Hospitality of British Columbia which my international students appreciate for most of them are new here in Canada. This book helps us to explore the beauty of BC and the whole Canada. While I’m discussing this topic, my students get so excited to explore the country. I suggest to please add more images/pictures especially on the chapters about tourist destination to attract more the readers, in that way they will have a clearer view on how beautiful are the tourist spots. But nevertheless, the website added on the book are very useful and helpful to the teachers like me.

I HIGHLY RECOMMEND this book, this can be a strong foundation for the students taking Hospitality and Tourism Program.

Ace P. Espiritu
Hospitality Instructor
Dorset College

Comprehensiveness Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased


The diagrams and other supplementary material are accurate and unbiased.

Content Accuracy Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Content is up-to-date, but not in a way that will quickly make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement


The content is up - to - date and straightforward that can easily understand and implement. The book will not easily be obsolete since it talks about history.

Relevance Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is written in lucid, accessible prose, and provides adequate context for any jargon/technical terminology used

The text expressed clearly and provide the accurate technical terms.

Clarity Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework

The text and terminology are consistent and used accurately.

Consistency Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course (i.e., enormous blocks of text without subheadings should be avoided). The text should not be overly self-referential, and should be easily reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader.

The book is well diverse in and easily understood whether your international student or domestic student.

Modularity Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion


The book is well organized every chapters from introduction to conclusion.

Organization Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is free of significant interface issues, including navigation problems, distortion of images/charts, and any other display features that may distract or confuse the reader


The images and charts are on its right place and easily navigate.

Interface Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text contains no grammatical errors


So far I did not observed any issue on the grammar or spelling.

Grammar Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. It should make use of examples that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds


The text is well diverse and have not sign of insensitive or offensive language used. They words are well selected

Cultural Relevance Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: Are there any other comments you would like to make about this book, for example, its appropriateness in a Canadian context or specific updates you think need to be made?

I HIGHLY RECOMMEND this book, this can be a strong foundation for the students taking Hospitality and Tourism Program.

Mike Walmsley

Institution:BC Institute of TechnologyTitle/Position: Instructor - School of Business + MediaCreative Commons License

Q: The text covers all areas and ideas of the subject appropriately and provides an effective index and/or glossary

The text covers many helpful key terms in every chapter. Each chapter has an extensive list of references. The text is conveniently organized along the NAICS codes for each of the first several chapters. This helps with the clarity of the chapters and helps avoid repetition that is often common in introductory textbooks.
The hospitality industry is replete with its share of jargon and acronyms and each chapter has a well thought out glossary of terms to help support the readers learning objectives. As an introductory text, I would have thought Chapter 8 - Services Marketing, (p. 183 - 4) would have included definitions/examples of demographics and psychographics more explicitly. It’s an important point to identify in any introductory text discussing marketing regardless of the industry.

Chapter 10 – Environmental Stewardship is a valuable and critical addition to any literature in the hospitality industry. This chapter provided a concise introduction to many of the issues as well as mitigation plans and attempts to responsibly sustain future industry expansion.

The table of contents is weak, particularly in the absence of an index.

The end of the textbook includes an Appendix – Glossary of Terms, with corresponding page numbers this could have developed into a meaningful Index.

Comprehensiveness Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased

P. 36, figure 2.8. is this correct? This is an image taken at Brockton Point in Stanley Park, Vancouver, overlooking the North Shore, (and the Lion’s Gate Bridge)

p. 76, figure 4.3 this location is no longer a Keg Restaurant, it’s now an Kelly O’Bryan’s Neighbourhood Restaurant and Carlos O’Bryan’s Neighbourhood Pub, one of several locations across BC.


Chapter 2 F&B

Discussion on HR management was weak, I would have liked to have seen a bit more of an overview defining recruitment, hiring, orientation, training, coaching, job sharing and career development in place of the discussion on tipping that really isn’t related to HR operations.

p. 91, “taking it to the street.” The citation in this section about the valuation of the industry, “$1 billion…” does not indicate if this is for BC, Canada or a figure for North America.

p. 104, Tourism BC, 2013 stats are a bit dated.

Overall my criticism would be an unintentional bias by the lack of any discussion about diversity in the industry and workplace.

Content Accuracy Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: Content is up-to-date, but not in a way that will quickly make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement

It would be helpful to have up-to-date statistics but of course this is a large research challenge and because of the extensive coverage of many fields in the hospitality industry it would be very challenging and time consuming to update statistics in a meaningful way.

Relevance Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The text is written in lucid, accessible prose, and provides adequate context for any jargon/technical terminology used

As an introductory text it is fine, providing a significant overview to many of areas in tourism and hospitality. However, as an introductory text I would have liked to have seen the following:
• More detail on the hotel industry
• More detail for career options in each of the areas covered. Presumably, the reader is using this text as an introduction to the hospitality industry and a large part of their interest may be to explore career options in the industry. It would be challenging to include a large amount of detail, but a simple list of the most common, or key positions in the relevant areas with additional references might be supportive/helpful to a career seeker.
As an introductory text, by sticking to the basics and the NACIS classification system it’s likely to remain relevant in the coming years as these classifications are unlikely to change. Grow and gain new detail yes, but the main share of the classifications and outlines is unlikely to change much.

Yes. And as mentioned extremely content rich. Like any industry, any introductory text is heavy with technical terms, jargon and vocabulary that is specific to that particular industry. This book is no exception to that and as noted, each chapter clearly identifies terminology in bold text that corresponds to a glossary with explanations that go beyond the contextual placement of the vocabulary.

Clarity Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework

With several authors consistency is a significant challenge. This text seems to have successfully achieved this and maintains a consistency in lexis and the framework used to structure each chapter and each section in the chapters

Consistency Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course (i.e., enormous blocks of text without subheadings should be avoided). The text should not be overly self-referential, and should be easily reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader.

In general terms I would agree, however as one reads from one section to the next the accumulation of information as to how one aspect of the industry functions impinges on others. Also, the acquisition of jargon and terminology may also play a role here. Whereas I think that individual chapters may be capable of standing alone, I feel that some continuity may be lost by dividing the text into stand-alone chapters or sections. This isn’t necessarily a fault in the text, its more to do with this book as an introduction to the industry and the need to acquire a significant about of insight and vocabulary to make full use of the learning experience. For example, portions of the chapter on customer service may not make sense without some understanding of the chapters on accommodation and food and beverage.

Modularity Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion

Yes. As noted elsewhere in this review, the content presents in a logical progression from one section of the industry to the next.

Organization Rating: 5 out of 5

Q: The text is free of significant interface issues, including navigation problems, distortion of images/charts, and any other display features that may distract or confuse the reader

I would say yes, although this question may be more related to accessing this textbook as an online textbook as well as the print version. Because of pixilation, some of the images are a little fuzzy. As a visual/tactile reader/learner, I would have liked to have more images, but this of course would significantly impact the size and presentation of the book and material covered.

Interface Rating: 4 out of 5

Q: The text contains no grammatical errors

Here are some that I found:

P. 12 “….along itsnewly completed..”

p. 50 “…three types of hotel that have…….” plural

p. 172, In the PRICE concept / a ? in front of the “I”

Grammar Rating: 3 out of 5

Q: The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. It should make use of examples that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds

Although Chapter 12 serves as a good introduction to issues related to aboriginal tourism, I found the text lacking in any other recognition of diversity and inclusion. This is regrettable; the tourism industry spans many different business models and the diversity of the customer base echoes this as does the ownership and labour force that thrives in this industry, yet it seems to have gone largely unnoticed in this text. There are risks in the text. To some it may appear that aboriginal tourism is commodifying a culture (chapter 14, p. 304). From a critical aspect, I would say that the inclusion of aboriginal tourism does not satisfy the criteria for being a diverse or inclusive voice for an industry often recognized for its amazing diversity and inclusion.

As an introductory textbook for the hospitality industry in BC I would have expected a discussion at some point to echo the broad diversity we experience here in BC and build on this. Granted Chapter 12 discusses many aspects of aboriginal tourism the text does little to recognize other (minority) groups in the community in general and in the industry in specific. For me, issues of (workplace) diversity should have been introduced in Chapter 13 – Careers and Work Experience or in Chapter 14 dealing with trends but is notably absent.

The rising voice of women entrepreneurs/business owners and managers and the expansion of LGBTQ+ businesses and others in the hospitality industry was lacking. Failure to recognize minorities other than aboriginal tourism diminishes the contributions made by other groups in this vast and diverse industry.

Since this text was first published some attitudes and approaches to issues around inclusion and diversity have changed which of course may make some of the books content a bit dated. For example, there have been significant strides forward with BC’s indigenous communities and the successful development of joint projects in tourism (and other areas of the economy) as well as issues of awareness and reconciliation. The reason I scored this section at 2.5 was because of its lack of inclusion and diversity in the industry overall and the workplace.

Cultural Relevance Rating: 2 out of 5

Q: Are there any other comments you would like to make about this book, for example, its appropriateness in a Canadian context or specific updates you think need to be made?

I would recommend this book as an introductory text to the industry. As a stand-alone learning source, it provides significant (and general) insights into the various classifications that make up the hospitality and tourism industry. As a classroom textbook, it provides good opportunities for more in-depth learning with the exercises and case studies in each chapter to build on for learners.